In contrast to tolerance induction, the aim in vaccination is to get a strong immune response and high antibody titer for protection against pathogens.However, a similar concept like in the induction of tolerance is used by PLS-Design to improve vaccinations, utilizing the abundance of complement component C3. Known for long time, only recently it was discovered that this molecule of the innate immune system exhibits significant influence on the adaptive part of the immune system.
If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. – Sir Isaac Newton
It has been discovered that the fragments of activated complement, especially the C3 fragments C3d and C3dg act as natural adjuvants, enhancing the immune reaction. PLS-Design is using these natural adjuvants by enzymatically activating C3 at a constant rate with its patent protected recombinant C3 derivative. This molecule is modified with structures from the Cobra venom factor (CVF) to represent a stabile, active fluid-phase C3-convertase, preserving the low antigenicity of human C3. Wheras in tolerance induction the complement is consumed by fast activation and degradation of C3, in the vaccination approach C3 is activated that molecules can attach to antigens and enhance the immune reaction by opsonization, marking the antigen for specialized immune cells, or triggering immune cells by receptor binding. The advantages of this approach are:
- Use of an in situ produced natural abundant adjuvant
- Low risk of induction of autoimmune reaction due to cellular complement regulatory mechanism
- Low risk of systemic side reactions due to localized reaction
- High concentrations and constant release due to hydrogel application strategy
- Only minute amounts of recombinant C3 necessary due to enzymatic activity
To verify the success of every immune modulation, tests have to be made. Companion diagnostics can be used to not only verify, but even improve the success of therapeutic treatments. Read more in “Companion Diagnostics”.
PLS-Design is using a naturally abundant adjuvant, complement C3, to improve vaccinations.